In the realm of Islamic jurisprudence, the question of whether music is permissible (halal) or forbidden (haram) has been a topic of considerable debate. To shed light on this matter, we turn to the words of scholars and the teachings of Islam, exploring the various perspectives and evidence surrounding music.

Defining Ma’azif:

In Islamic terminology, “Ma’azif” refers to musical instruments, specifically those used for playing music. The term encompasses instruments such as drums and flutes, as well as singing. Scholars, including al-Qurtubi and al-Jawhari, concur that ma’azif involves musical instruments and singing.

Also read: All You Need to Know About Muharram

Quranic and Hadith Evidence:

The prohibition of music and singing is rooted in Quranic verses and authentic Hadiths. The Quran, in Surah Luqman (31:6), warns against purchasing “idle talks” (interpreted as music and singing) that mislead individuals from the path of Allah. Ibn ‘Abbas and Mujahid confirm this interpretation.

Also read: Is weed haram?

Additionally, the Quran instructs Iblis to use his voice, including songs and music, to mislead people (Quran 17:64). This further underscores the negative connotations associated with music in Islamic teachings.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) prophesied the acceptance of practices like zina, silk, alcohol, and musical instruments among some in his ummah, implying their prohibition (Sahih al-Bukhari).

Scholarly Consensus:

All four major Sunni madhhabs (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali) agree on the prohibition of musical instruments. The scholars, including Abu Hanifah, Malik, al-Shafi’i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, unanimously condemn all types of musical instruments.

Exception for the Daff:

An exception to the general prohibition is the daff, a hand-drum without rings. Women are allowed to use the daff on joyous occasions such as ‘Eids and weddings. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) permitted women to play the daff during festive celebrations.

Also read: 11 Benefits of Sadaqah [7th is a Secret]

Views of Prominent Scholars:

Individual scholars have emphasized the harmful effects of music on the soul. Ibn Taymiyah equates musical instruments to the “wine of the soul,” and Ibn Qudamah underscores that musical instruments are haram by consensus.

Also Read: Allah’s Justice – An Overview of the Concept


In conclusion, the consensus among Islamic scholars is clear – music, in its various forms, is generally considered haram. The evidence from the Quran, Hadiths, and the views of scholars emphasizes the detrimental impact of music on spiritual well-being. While an exception is made for the daff in specific contexts, the broader prohibition remains intact. Muslims seeking to adhere to Islamic teachings should exercise caution and mindfulness in matters related to music, recognizing its potential impact on the soul and spirituality.

Also Read: